Strings in C ?

A string is a sequence of characters enclosed within double quotes. A string constant is always terminated by a NULL character. A null terminated string is the only type of string defined by C language.

NULL-TERMINATED ----- char arr[5]={‘a’,’b’,’c’,’d’, ‘\0’}
the size of the character array containing the string is one more than the number of characters in the word.


String Input/ Output function

Header file---> #include<stdio.h>
  • formatted input function.Ex:- scanf()
  • formatted output functionEx:- printf()
  • Un-formatted input functionEx:- gets()
  • Un-formatted output functionEx:- puts()

scanf() getsf()
The scanf() function can read input from keyboard and stores them according to the given format specifier. It reads the input till encountering a whitespace, newline or EOF. On other hand gets() function is used to receive input from the keyboard till it encounters a newline or EOF. The whitespace is considered as a part of the input.
In scanf() function white-space is not considered as input character and also it stops reading input from external source if any white-space is encountered in between. On other hand in gets() function white-space is considered as input character and also it does stops reading input from external source if any white-space encountered in between it continue its reading from input source.
scanf() function can read multiple values of different data types. However on other hand gets() function will only get character string data

String Handling function

Header file --> #include<string.h>

string Explaination
Strlen(str)- To find length of the string str
Strcpy(dest,src) Copies the source string src to destination string dest
Strncpy(dest , src, n) Copies at most n characters of the source string src to destination string
Strcat(str1,str2) Append string str2 to string str1
Strncat(str1,str2,n) Append first n characters of string str2 to string str1
Strcmp(str1,str2) Compare two string str1 and str2
Strrev(str) Reverse the given string i.e abc output cba
strupr(str)
strlwr(str)
Convert lower case to upper case
Convert upper case to lower case